Special Educational Needs
"Pupils with SEND make very strong progress."
OFSTED Report, 2018
What is the Local Offer?
The Local Offer was first introduced in the Green Paper (March 2011) as a local offer of all services to support disabled children and children with SEN and their families. This easy to understand information will set out what is normally available in schools to help children with lower-level SEN as well as the options available to support families who need additional help to care for their child.
To visit the Wakefield Council Local Offer website click on this link
Assistant Headteacher Inclusion and Behaviour Lead
Mr Davison can be contacted via the school office or via email: firstname.lastname@example.org
"School identifies learning needs promptly and plans high-quality experiences."
OFSTED Report, 2018
In the first instance if you would like information regarding SEND provision, support or signposting, then please contact your child's class teacher. If you require further assistance, please contact Mr Davison using the details above.
Definitions of special educational needs (SEN)
A child or young person has SEN if they have a learning difficulty or disability which calls for
special educational provision to be made for them. A child of compulsory school age or a
young person has a learning difficulty or disability if they:
(a) have a significantly greater difficulty in learning than the majority of others of the same
(b) have a disability which prevents or hinders them from making use of educational
facilities of a kind generally provided for others of the same age in mainstream schools or
mainstream post-16 institutions.
Areas of special educational need
Special educational needs and provision can be considered as falling under four broad areas.
1. Communication and interaction
2. Cognition and learning
3. Social, mental and emotional health
4. Sensory and/or physical
Many children and young people have difficulties that fit clearly into one of these areas;
some have needs that span two or more areas; for others the precise nature of their need
may not be clear at the outset. It is therefore important to carry out a detailed individual
assessment of each child or young person and their situation at the earliest opportunity to
make an accurate assessment of their needs.
1) Communication and interaction
Children and young people with SEN may have difficulties in one or more of the areas of
speech, language and communication. These children and young people need help to
develop their linguistic competence in order to support their thinking, as well as their
communication skills. Specific learning difficulties such as dyslexia or a physical or sensory
impairment such as hearing loss may also lead to communication difficulties.
Those with speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) cover the whole ability
range. They find it more difficult to communicate with others. They may have problems
taking part in conversations, either because they find it difficult to understand what others
say or because they have difficulties with fluency and forming sounds, words and sentences.
It may be that when they hear or see a word they are not able to understand its meaning,
leading to words being used incorrectly in or out of context and the child having a smaller
vocabulary. It may be a combination of these problems. For some children and young
people, difficulties may become increasingly apparent as the language they need to
understand and use becomes more complex.
Children and young people with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger’s
Syndrome and Autism, have difficulty in making sense of the world in the way others do.
They may have difficulties with communication, social interaction and imagination. In
addition they may be easily distracted or upset by certain stimuli, have problems with
change to familiar routines or have difficulties with their co-ordination and fine-motor
2) Cognition and learning
Children and young people with learning difficulties will learn at a slower pace than other
children and may have greater difficulty than their peers in acquiring basic literacy or
numeracy skills or in understanding concepts, even with appropriate differentiation. They
may also have other difficulties such as speech and language delay, low self-esteem, low
levels of concentration and under-developed social skills.
Children and young people with a learning difficulty are at increased risk of developing a
mental health problem. They may need additional support with their social development,
self-esteem and emotional well-being.
Children and young people with severe learning difficulties (SLD) have significant intellectual
or cognitive impairments and are likely to need support in all areas of the curriculum. They
may have difficulties in mobility and co-ordination, communication and perception, and the
acquisition of self-help skills. Children and young people with SLD are likely to need support
to be independent. Those with profound and multiple learning difficulties (PMLD) have
severe and complex learning difficulties as well as significant other difficulties such as a
physical disability or a sensory impairment. They are likely to need sensory stimulation and a
curriculum broken down into very small steps. These children and young people require a
high level of adult support, both for their educational needs and for their personal care.
A child or young person with a Specific learning difficulty (SpLD) may have difficulty with one
or more aspects of learning. This includes a range of conditions such as dyslexia (difficulties
with reading and spelling); dyscalculia (maths); dyspraxia (co-ordination) and dysgraphia
3) Social, mental and emotional health
For some children and young people, difficulties in their emotional and social development,
can mean that they require additional and different provision in order for them to achieve.
Children and young people who have difficulties with their emotional and social
development may have immature social skills and find it difficult to make and sustain
healthy relationships. These difficulties may be displayed through the child or young person
becoming withdrawn or isolated, as well as through challenging, disruptive or disturbing
A wide range and degree of mental health problems might require special provision to be
made. These could manifest as difficulties such as problems of mood (anxiety or
depression), problems of conduct (oppositional problems and more severe conduct
problems including aggression), self-harming, substance abuse, eating disorders or physical
symptoms that are medically unexplained. Some children and young people may have other
recognised disorders such as attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactive
disorder (ADHD), attachment disorder, autism or pervasive developmental disorder, an
anxiety disorder, a disruptive disorder or, rarely, schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
4) Sensory and/or physical needs
There is a wide range of sensory and physical difficulties that affect children and young
people across the ability range. Many children and young people require minor adaptations
to the curriculum, their study programme or the physical environment. Many such
adaptations may be required as reasonable adjustments under the Equality Act 2010.
Children and young people with a visual impairment (VI) or a hearing impairment (HI) may
require specialist support and equipment to access their learning. Children and young
people with a Multi-Sensory Impairment (MSI) have a combination of visual and hearing
difficulties, which makes it much more difficult for them to access the curriculum or study
programme than those with a single sensory impairment. Some children and young people
with a physical disability (PD) require additional on-going support and equipment to access
all the opportunities available to their peers.
Disabled children and young people
Many disabled children and young people also have a SEN. Where this is the case, access
arrangements and other adjustments should be considered as part of SEN planning and
review. However, it may be that the steps to ensure access to mainstream education and
related opportunities are sufficient to mean that special education provision does not need
to be made.
Dane Royd Junior & Infant School